Soil of AJK are mostly developed from calcareous sandstone, shales and limestone, and are generally alluvial and colluvial deposits. The major portion of AJK soils (about 70 percent) fall under Murree. series. Mature profiles are rare. These soils are deep, dark brown in colour, developed under forest vegetation. Since the parent rocks are sandstones and shale of reddish and purplish colour, the soils are predominantly reddish in colour. The original calcareous parent material having been leached, free of calcium carbonate, the soils are generally non-calcareous and well drained. They are medium to moderately fine-textured and deep to moderately deep with the exception of soils on mountainous slopes. Soils of the piedmont plains of Bhimber, however, have sandy texture and somewhat excessive drainage.